Auflistung Institut für Ecopreneurship nach Schlagwort "570 - Biowissenschaften, Biologie"
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- PublikationEnvironmental chemicals affect circadian rhythms. An underexplored effect influencing health and fitness in animals and humans(Elsevier, 04/2021) Zheng, Xuehan; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Yanbin; Fent, Karl [in: Environment International]Circadian rhythms control the life of virtually all organisms. They regulate numerous aspects ranging from cellular processes to reproduction and behavior. Besides the light-dark cycle, there are additional environmental factors that regulate the circadian rhythms in animals as well as humans. Here, we outline the circadian rhythm system and considers zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a representative vertebrate organism. We characterize multiple physiological processes, which are affected by circadian rhythm disrupting compounds (circadian disrupters). We focus on and summarize 40 natural and anthropogenic environmental circadian disrupters in fish. They can be divided into six major categories: steroid hormones, metals, pesticides and biocides, polychlorinated biphenyls, neuroactive drugs and other compounds such as cyanobacterial toxins and bisphenol A. Steroid hormones as well as metals are most studied. Especially for progestins and glucocorticoids, circadian dysregulation was demonstrated in zebrafish on the molecular and physiological level, which comprise mainly behavioral alterations. Our review summarizes the current state of knowledge on circadian disrupters, highlights their risks to fish and identifies knowledge gaps in animals and humans. While most studies focus on transcriptional and behavioral alterations, additional effects and consequences are underexplored. Forthcoming studies should explore, which additional environmental circadian disrupters exist. They should clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms and aim to better understand the consequences for physiological processes.01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
- PublikationMethodological approaches for fractionation and speciation to estimate trace element bioavailability in engineered anaerobic digestion ecosystems: An overview(Taylor & Francis, 16.09.2016) van Hullebusch, Eric D.; Guibaud, Gilles; Simon, Stéphane; Lenz, Markus; Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri; Fermoso, Fernando G.; Jain, Rohan; Duester, Lars; Roussel, Jimmy; Guillon, Emmanuel; Skyllberg, Ulf; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Pechaud, Yoan; Garuti, Mirco; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Carliell-Marquet, Cynthia; Ortner, Markus; Collins, Gavin [in: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology]01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
- PublikationProduction of superparamagnetic nanobiocatalysts for green chemistry applications(Springer, 23.04.2016) Gasser, Christoph; Ammann, Erik; Schäffer, Andreas; Shahgaldian, Patrick; Corvini, Philippe [in: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology]Immobilization of enzymes on solid supports is a convenient method for increasing enzymatic stability and enabling enzyme reuse. In the present work, a sorption-assisted surface conjugation method was developed and optimized to immobilize enzymes on the surface of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. An oxidative enzyme, i.e., laccase from Trametes versicolor was used as model enzyme. The immobilization method consists of the production of superparamagnetic nanoparticles by co-precipitation of FeCl2 and FeCl3. Subsequently, the particle surface is modified with an organosilane containing an amino group. Next, the enzymes are adsorbed on the particle surface before a cross-linking agent, i.e., glutaraldehyde is added which links the amino groups on the particle surface with the amino groups of the enzymes and leads to internal cross-linking of the enzymes as well. The method was optimized using response surface methodology regarding optimal enzyme and glutaraldehyde amounts, pH, and reaction times. Results allowed formulation of biocatalysts having high specific enzymatic activity and improved stability. The biocatalysts showed considerably higher stability compared with the dissolved enzymes over a pH range from 3 to 9 and in the presence of several chemical denaturants. To demonstrate the reusability of the immobilized enzymes, they were applied as catalysts for the production of a phenoxazinone dye. Virtually, 100 % of the precursor was transformed to the dye in each of the ten conducted reaction cycles while on average 84.5 % of the enzymatic activity present at the beginning of a reaction cycle was retained after each cycle highlighting the considerable potential of superparamagnetic biocatalysts for application in industrial processes.01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
- PublikationSulfur amino acid status controls selenium methylation in pseudomonas tolaasii. Identification of a novel metabolite from promiscuous enzyme reactions(American Society for Microbiology, 26.05.2021) Liu, Ying; Hedwig, Sebastian; Schäffer, Andreas; Lenz, Markus; Martinez, Mathieu [in: Applied and Environmental Microbiology]Selenium (Se) deficiency affects many millions of people worldwide, and the volatilization of methylated Se species to the atmosphere may prevent Se from entering the food chain. Despite the extent of Se deficiency, little is known about fluxes in volatile Se species and their temporal and spatial variation in the environment, giving rise to uncertainty in atmospheric transport models. To systematically determine fluxes, one can rely on laboratory microcosm experiments to quantify Se volatilization in different conditions. Here, it is demonstrated that the sulfur (S) status of bacteria crucially determines the amount of Se volatilized. Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that Pseudomonas tolaasii efficiently and rapidly (92% in 18 h) volatilized Se to dimethyl diselenide and dimethyl selenyl sulfide through promiscuous enzymatic reactions with the S metabolism. However, when the cells were supplemented with cystine (but not methionine), a major proportion of the Se (∼48%) was channeled to thus-far-unknown, nonvolatile Se compounds at the expense of the previously formed dimethyl diselenide and dimethyl selenyl sulfide (accounting for <4% of total Se). Ion chromatography and solid-phase extraction were used to isolate unknowns, and electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and microprobe nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry were used to identify the major unknown as a novel Se metabolite, 2-hydroxy-3-(methylselanyl)propanoic acid. Environmental S concentrations often exceed Se concentrations by orders of magnitude. This suggests that in fact S status may be a major control of selenium fluxes to the atmosphere. IMPORTANCE Volatilization from soil to the atmosphere is a major driver for Se deficiency. “Bottom-up” models for atmospheric Se transport are based on laboratory experiments quantifying volatile Se compounds. The high Se and low S concentrations in such studies poorly represent the environment. Here, we show that S amino acid status has in fact a decisive effect on the production of volatile Se species in Pseudomonas tolaasii. When the strain was supplemented with S amino acids, a major proportion of the Se was channeled to thus-far-unknown, nonvolatile Se compounds at the expense of volatile compounds. This hierarchical control of the microbial S amino acid status on Se cycling has been thus far neglected. Understanding these interactions—if they occur in the environment—will help to improve atmospheric Se models and thus predict drivers of Se deficiency.01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift