Visschers, Vivianne

Visschers, Vivianne


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  • Publikation
    Application of multiblock modelling to identify key drivers for antimicrobial use in pig production in four European countries
    (Cambridge University Press, 2018) Backhans, Annette; Dewulf, Jeroen; Emanuelson, Ulf; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Loesken, Svenja; Postma, Merel; Sjölund, Marie; Stärk, Katherina; Visschers, Vivianne; Belloc, Catherine; Collineau, Lucie; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Lehébel, Anne [in: Epidemiology and Infection]
    Antimicrobial use in pig farming is influenced by a range of risk factors, including herd characteristics, biosecurity level, farm performance, occurrence of clinical signs and vaccination scheme, as well as farmers’ attitudes and habits towards antimicrobial use. So far, the effect of these risk factors has been explored separately. Using an innovative method called multiblock partial least-squares regression, this study aimed to investigate, in a sample of 207 farrow-to-finish farms from Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden, the relative importance of the six above mentioned categories or ‘blocks’ of risk factors for antimicrobial use in pig production. Four country separate models were developed; they showed that all six blocks provided useful contribution to explaining antimicrobial use in at least one country. The occurrence of clinical signs, especially of respiratory and nervous diseases in fatteners, was one of the largest contributing blocks in all four countries, whereas the effect of the other blocks differed between countries. In terms of risk management, it suggests that a holistic and country-specific mitigation strategy is likely to be more effective. However, further research is needed to validate our findings in larger and more representative samples, as well as in other countries.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Higher perceived risks of antimicrobial use are related to lower usage among pig farmers in four European countries
    (BMJ, 2016) Visschers, Vivianne; Postma, Merel; Sjölund, Marie; Backhans, Annette; Collineau, Lucie; Loesken, Svenja; Belloc, Catherine; Dewulf, Jeroen; Emanuelson, Ulf; Siegrist, Michael; Stärk, Katherina [in: Veterinary Record]
    The prudent use of antimicrobials (AMs) should be widened in pig farming to reduce the risk of AM resistance (AMR) in human and veterinary medicine. It is therefore important to understand pig farmers’ motivators and the barriers to AM usage (AMU) on their farms. The authors investigated pig farmers’ self-estimated levels of AMU, their perceived benefits and risks and the need for AMs in a cross-sectional survey in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. The authors also compared these perceptions between the four countries and related them to pig farmers’ actual AMU. The results showed that farmers who used more AMs also estimated their own usage as higher. Farmers perceived many benefits but relatively few risks of AMU in pig farming. Some significant cross-country differences in farmers’ perceptions were found, but they were relatively small. After controlling for country differences and farm differences, only perceived risks had a significant association with AMU. The authors therefore conclude that in order to promote prudent AMU, it seems most promising to focus on the structural differences in pig farming and veterinary medicine (e.g. legislation, role of the veterinarian) among countries. In addition, interventions which aim at reducing AMU should increase farmers’ awareness of the risks of extensive AMU.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    A comparison of pig farmers' and veterinarians' perceptions and intentions to reduce antimicrobial usage in six European countries
    (Wiley, 2016) Visschers, Vivianne; Backhans, Annette; Collineau, Lucie; Loesken, Svenja; Nielsen, Elisabeth; Postma, Merel; Belloc, Catherine; Dewulf, Jeroen; Emanuelson, Ulf; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Siegrist, Michael; Sjölund, Marie; Stärk, Katherina [in: Zoonoses and Public Health]
    Antimicrobial (AM) resistance is an increasing problem in human and veterinary medicine. To manage this problem, the usage of AM should be reduced in pig farming, as well as in other areas. It is important to investigate the factors that influence both pig farmers' and veterinarians' intentions to reduce AM usage, which is a prerequisite for developing intervention measures. We conducted a mail survey among pig farmers (N = 1,294) and an online survey among veterinarians (N = 334) in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. The farmers' survey assessed the perceived risks and benefits of and need for AM usage; the intention to reduce AM usage; farmers' efficacy (i.e. perception of their ability to reduce AM usage); support from their veterinarian; and the future reduction potential of AM usage. Additionally, self-reported reduction behaviours, the perceived farmers' barriers to reduce AM usage and relationships with farmers were assessed in the veterinarians' survey. The results showed that farmers and veterinarians had similar perceptions of the risks and benefits of AM usage. Veterinarians appeared to be more optimistic than pig farmers about reducing AM usage in pig farming. Farmers believed that their efficacy over AM reduction was relatively high. Farmers' intention to reduce AM usage and veterinarians' self-reported reduction behaviours were mainly associated with factors concerning the feasibility of reducing AM usage. To promote prudent AM usage, pig farmers should learn and experience how to reduce usage by applying alternative measures, whereas veterinarians should strengthen their advisory role and competencies to support and educate farmers.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift