Visschers, Vivianne

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Vivianne
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Visschers, Vivianne

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  • Publikation
    Smaller servings vs. information provision: Results of two interventions to reduce plate waste in two university canteens
    (Elsevier, 2020) Visschers, Vivianne; Gundlach, Daniela; Beretta, Claudio [in: Waste Management]
    Two interventions were systematically evaluated in two university canteens on their effectiveness to reduce visitors’ plate waste. The evaluation was theory-based and focused not only at the effects on the amount of plate waste, but also at the psychological predictors underlying plate waste behaviour. In Intervention A, visitors received information about food waste over a period of three weeks. In Intervention B, in addition to information, smaller servings were offered. The actual amount of plate waste and visitors’ attitudes, personal norms, beliefs, perceived behavioural control, intentions and plate waste reduction behaviour were measured before and after the interventions. Intervention B reduced the amount of plate waste by 20%, whereas no reduction was found after Intervention A. In both interventions, the provided information resulted in more positive beliefs and stronger personal norms regarding avoiding plate waste. The information also caused attitudes to have a stronger influence on plate waste reduction behaviour, whereas intention to reduce became less important for reducing plate waste. Personal norms regarding food waste were the strongest predictor of plate waste reduction behaviour, before and after the interventions. The provided information was thus insufficient to reduce plate waste, simply offering smaller servings could achieve this. Although our intervention study only included two university canteens and was conducted for a short period, our data seem to imply that a combination of both information and smaller servings reduces plate waste in the food service industry.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Affect or information? Examining drivers of public preferences of future energy portfolios in Switzerland
    (Elsevier, 2019) Jobin, Marilou; Visschers, Vivianne; Arvai, Joseph; Siegrist, Michael [in: Energy Research & Social Science]
    The energy transition in Switzerland, as in many other countries, aims to increase the proportion of electricity produced using renewable energy technologies. In this context, governmental agencies and other institutions have attempted to communicate the implications of (domestic) electricity systems through the use of web-based and interactive decision support systems (DSSs). Studies show that, when no additional information is provided, preferences concerning the future electricity mix are mainly driven by the affective reactions that energy technologies evoke. A question remains, however, regarding how people engage with the information provided in a DSS, as well as whether such information is influential in terms of shaping people’s choices. We asked our participants to build an electricity portfolio using a DSS, which modeled the Swiss electricity system. The participants’ political orientation and their affective reactions to different energy technologies guided their information search, as well as the choice of energy technologies within their portfolio. The attention paid to the information provided was not directly related to the participants’ portfolio choices. The selective processing of information, which was based on the participants’ prior attitudes, suggests that they target information they are already familiar with in the DSS. However, this also illustrates a caveat previously identified in motivated political reasoning, since selective information processing, together with the tendency to disconfirm information that is incongruent with prior beliefs, can lead to the polarization of previously held views. As the information provided through the DSS we tested was unable to change the participants’ affective-cognitive evaluation of energy technologies, its use should be carefully considered in light of the possible effects of consolidating existing beliefs.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Application of multiblock modelling to identify key drivers for antimicrobial use in pig production in four European countries
    (Cambridge University Press, 2018) Backhans, Annette; Dewulf, Jeroen; Emanuelson, Ulf; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Loesken, Svenja; Postma, Merel; Sjölund, Marie; Stärk, Katherina; Visschers, Vivianne; Belloc, Catherine; Collineau, Lucie; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Lehébel, Anne [in: Epidemiology and Infection]
    Antimicrobial use in pig farming is influenced by a range of risk factors, including herd characteristics, biosecurity level, farm performance, occurrence of clinical signs and vaccination scheme, as well as farmers’ attitudes and habits towards antimicrobial use. So far, the effect of these risk factors has been explored separately. Using an innovative method called multiblock partial least-squares regression, this study aimed to investigate, in a sample of 207 farrow-to-finish farms from Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden, the relative importance of the six above mentioned categories or ‘blocks’ of risk factors for antimicrobial use in pig production. Four country separate models were developed; they showed that all six blocks provided useful contribution to explaining antimicrobial use in at least one country. The occurrence of clinical signs, especially of respiratory and nervous diseases in fatteners, was one of the largest contributing blocks in all four countries, whereas the effect of the other blocks differed between countries. In terms of risk management, it suggests that a holistic and country-specific mitigation strategy is likely to be more effective. However, further research is needed to validate our findings in larger and more representative samples, as well as in other countries.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    How to improve consumers' environmental sustainability judgements of foods
    (Elsevier, 2018) Lazzarini, Gianna A.; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael [in: Journal of Cleaner Production]
    Food production and consumption account for approximately one-third of households' environmental impact. Consumers thus play a major role in the shift towards more sustainable foods and diets. An overall sustainability label or simple guidelines may enable consumers to make more environmentally friendly food choices, but whether such information-based tools improve consumers' ability to choose environmentally sustainable foods has not been empirically investigated. This study's online choice task experiment shows that eco-labels and guidelines marginally increased consumers' accuracy in selecting environmentally friendly foods. Respondents adhered, however, more to guidelines than to eco-labels and led to choices with lower environmental impact. In addition, respondents showed several misconceptions related to the environmental performance of protein products, which were resistant to both eco-labels and guidelines. These findings suggest that new, costly labels may not improve consumers' environmental judgements. Instead, addressing consumers' misconceptions and finding ways to promote environmentally sustainable food purchases is essential.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Judgments under uncertainty: evaluations of univocal, ambiguous and conflicting probability information
    (Routledge, 2017) Visschers, Vivianne [in: Journal of Risk Research]
    People often have to make decisions about problems that not only involve a probability of a risk, but also an uncertainty around this probability. In this paper, uncertainty that arises through a lack of knowledge (i.e. ambiguity) is distinguished from uncertainty that results from conflicting knowledge on the hazard's probability of occurring.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Sorting out food waste behaviour: A survey on the motivators and barriers of self-reported amounts of food waste in households
    (Elsevier, 2016) Visschers, Vivianne; Wickli, Nadine; Siegrist, Michael [in: Journal of Environmental Psychology]
    Households in Western countries are responsible for a large amount of food that is not consumed, but instead is wasted, which has large environmental impacts. To reduce this amount, we should understand the predictors of consumers' food waste. We conducted a large mail survey in Switzerland to investigate which determinants explain the self-reported amount of food waste in households. Determinants were taken from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), as well as personal norms, knowledge, household planning habits and the good provider identity. Self-reported amounts of food waste were assessed for 11 food groups. The TPB determinants, together with the good provider identity, explained the amount of food waste well. Moreover, different predictors appeared relevant for waste in different food categories. To reduce food waste in households, interventions should focus on increasing consumers' perceived behavioural control over food waste and persuading them that they can be a good provider without wasting food.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Higher perceived risks of antimicrobial use are related to lower usage among pig farmers in four European countries
    (BMJ, 2016) Visschers, Vivianne; Postma, Merel; Sjölund, Marie; Backhans, Annette; Collineau, Lucie; Loesken, Svenja; Belloc, Catherine; Dewulf, Jeroen; Emanuelson, Ulf; Siegrist, Michael; Stärk, Katherina [in: Veterinary Record]
    The prudent use of antimicrobials (AMs) should be widened in pig farming to reduce the risk of AM resistance (AMR) in human and veterinary medicine. It is therefore important to understand pig farmers’ motivators and the barriers to AM usage (AMU) on their farms. The authors investigated pig farmers’ self-estimated levels of AMU, their perceived benefits and risks and the need for AMs in a cross-sectional survey in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. The authors also compared these perceptions between the four countries and related them to pig farmers’ actual AMU. The results showed that farmers who used more AMs also estimated their own usage as higher. Farmers perceived many benefits but relatively few risks of AMU in pig farming. Some significant cross-country differences in farmers’ perceptions were found, but they were relatively small. After controlling for country differences and farm differences, only perceived risks had a significant association with AMU. The authors therefore conclude that in order to promote prudent AMU, it seems most promising to focus on the structural differences in pig farming and veterinary medicine (e.g. legislation, role of the veterinarian) among countries. In addition, interventions which aim at reducing AMU should increase farmers’ awareness of the risks of extensive AMU.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    A comparison of pig farmers' and veterinarians' perceptions and intentions to reduce antimicrobial usage in six European countries
    (Wiley, 2016) Visschers, Vivianne; Backhans, Annette; Collineau, Lucie; Loesken, Svenja; Nielsen, Elisabeth; Postma, Merel; Belloc, Catherine; Dewulf, Jeroen; Emanuelson, Ulf; Grosse Beilage, Elisabeth; Siegrist, Michael; Sjölund, Marie; Stärk, Katherina [in: Zoonoses and Public Health]
    Antimicrobial (AM) resistance is an increasing problem in human and veterinary medicine. To manage this problem, the usage of AM should be reduced in pig farming, as well as in other areas. It is important to investigate the factors that influence both pig farmers' and veterinarians' intentions to reduce AM usage, which is a prerequisite for developing intervention measures. We conducted a mail survey among pig farmers (N = 1,294) and an online survey among veterinarians (N = 334) in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. The farmers' survey assessed the perceived risks and benefits of and need for AM usage; the intention to reduce AM usage; farmers' efficacy (i.e. perception of their ability to reduce AM usage); support from their veterinarian; and the future reduction potential of AM usage. Additionally, self-reported reduction behaviours, the perceived farmers' barriers to reduce AM usage and relationships with farmers were assessed in the veterinarians' survey. The results showed that farmers and veterinarians had similar perceptions of the risks and benefits of AM usage. Veterinarians appeared to be more optimistic than pig farmers about reducing AM usage in pig farming. Farmers believed that their efficacy over AM reduction was relatively high. Farmers' intention to reduce AM usage and veterinarians' self-reported reduction behaviours were mainly associated with factors concerning the feasibility of reducing AM usage. To promote prudent AM usage, pig farmers should learn and experience how to reduce usage by applying alternative measures, whereas veterinarians should strengthen their advisory role and competencies to support and educate farmers.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Does environmental friendliness equal healthiness? Swiss consumers’ perception of protein products
    (Elsevier, 2016) Lazzarini, Gianna A.; Zimmermann, Jasmin; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael [in: Appetite]
    Food production and consumption have major impacts on the environment. At the same time, changes in human diets worldwide are increasingly leading to health problems. Both issues are highly influenced by consumers’ everyday food choices and could be addressed by reducing consumption of meat and other animal products. To promote sustainable food consumption, we need to know how consumers perceive the environmental friendliness and healthiness of food products, on which criteria they base their evaluations of environmental friendliness and healthiness, and how their estimations relate to life cycle assessments and nutrient profiling. We presented 30 protein products, which varied in provenance, production methods, and processing, to 85 participants from Switzerland. They were asked to sort the products once according to their perceived environmental friendliness and once according to their perceived healthiness. The mean distances between the products were compared to the products’ life cycle assessments and nutrient profiles. The results showed that perceived environmental friendliness and healthiness are highly correlated. The main predictors of the products’ perceived environmental friendliness were product category, presence of an organic label, and provenance; and for perceived healthiness, these predictors were product category, fat content, processing, and presence of an organic label. Environmental friendliness and healthiness estimations were significantly correlated to the life cycle assessments and the nutrient profiles of the products, respectively. Hence, to promote healthy and environmentally friendly food choices, motivators related to environmental friendliness and healthiness could be used in synergy. Awareness about meat’s environmental impact should be increased and better information is needed for consumers to make an accurate environmental impact and healthiness assessments of protein products.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Does better for the environment mean less tasty? Offering more climate-friendly meals is good for the environment and customer satisfaction
    (Elsevier, 2015) Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael [in: Appetite]
    Food consumption comprises a significant portion of the total environmental impact of households. One way to reduce this impact may be to offer consumers more climate-friendly meal choices, such as when eating out. However, the environmental benefits of such an intervention will depend on not only consumers' liking of the climate-friendlier meals, but also on the perceived environmental impact. We therefore investigated the relationship between the global warming potential (GWP) of and consumers' liking of meals in two field studies in the same restaurant. Visitors to the restaurant were asked to rate the taste of the meal they had just consumed. These taste ratings were then related to the meals' GWP and number of purchases. In the second study, an intervention was tested consisting of a climate-friendly choice label and information posters. Contrary to expectations, it was found in both studies that the GWP of the meals was unrelated to the taste or the number of purchases. Offering more climate-friendly meals did not change consumer satisfaction. As expected, the introduction of the climate-friendly choice label increased the number of climate-friendly meal purchases. Therefore, offering more climate-friendly meals with a climate-friendly choice label can affect consumers' meal choices, but not their preferences or satisfaction, which is beneficial for the climate, consumers and gastronomic establishments.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift