Cytotoxic effects of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and its metabolite tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) on rainbow trout liver cells are modulated by antioxidants
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Abstract The world-wide distribution and high bioaccumulation potential of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aquatic organisms imply a high toxicological impact in aquatic systems. Firstly, our investigations show that, similar to mammalian cell lines, PCP can be metabolized to tetrachlorohydroquinone (TCHQ) in the permanent cell line derived from rainbow trout liver cells (RTL W-1). Moreover, we demonstrate that PCP as well as its metabolite TCHQ is capable of influencing the viability of these cells. Three cell viability assays were performed to assess possible cellular targets of these substances. Thus, the toxicity of the PCP-derivative TCHQ was shown for the first time in a fish cell line. Further investigations revealed the involvement of ROS in the cytotoxicity of PCP and its metabolite TCHQ. The observation of oxidative stress due to PCP or TCHQ exposure does provide a plausible explanation for the increased cytotoxicity of higher concentrations of both substances and implies possible mechanisms underlying these observations. In addition, antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and quercetin modulate the detrimental effects of PCP and TCHQ whereby both compounds exacerbate the cytotoxic effects of high PCP and TCHQ concentrations.