Reciprocal association between social support and psychological distress in chronic physical health conditions: A random intercept cross‐lagged panel model
2023-09-23, Debnar, Caroline, Peter, Claudio, Morselli, Davide, Michel, Gisela, Bachmann, Nicole, Carrard, Valerie
The onset of a chronic physical health condition (CHC) can highly impact individuals' well‐being and mental health. Social support has been shown to help people rebound after the onset of a CHC. Nonetheless, little is known about the longitudinal pattern of social support and its reciprocal association with mental health in CHC. This study aimed to illustrate the longitudinal pattern of perceived social support and to examine the reciprocal association between perceived social support and psychological distress across 6 years. Two random intercept cross‐lagged panel models were conducted, one for emotional and one for practical support, using yearly assessments of 582 Swiss Household Panel's participants reporting a CHC. A reciprocal association was found, with psychological distress 1 year after the onset being linked to less emotional support in the following year and vice versa, more emotional support being linked to less psychological distress the following year. A unidirectional association was found for practical support, with more psychological distress 1 year before the CHC onset being linked to more practical support at the onset year. This study underlines the importance of involving the social environment of individuals living with a CHC, especially around the first year after the onset.
Soziale Unterschiede in der Spitalversorgung chronisch kranker Menschen in der Schweiz
2023, Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy, Bachmann, Nicole, Zumbrunn, Andrea, Solèr, Maria
Die NFP-74-Studie “Social Inequalities and Hospitalisations in Switzerland (SIHOS)” untersuchte zum ersten Mal in der Schweiz soziale Ungleichheiten bei Spitalaufenthalten auf der Basis von repräsentativen landesweiten Daten auf Individualebene.
Social inequalities, length of hospital stay for chronic conditions and the mediating role of comorbidity and discharge destination: A multilevel analysis of hospital administrative data linked to the population census in Switzerland
2022-08-24, Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy, Zumbrunn, Andrea, Bachmann, Nicole
Social factors are recognized determinants of morbidity and mortality and also have an impact on use of medical services. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of educational attainment, social and financial resources, and migration factors with length of hospital stays for chronic conditions. In addition, the study investigated the role of comorbidity and discharge destination in mediating these associations. The study made use of nationwide inpatient data that was linked with Swiss census data. The study sample included n = 141,307 records of n = 92,623 inpatients aged 25 to 84 years, hospitalized between 2010 and 2016 for a chronic condition. Cross-classified multilevel models and mediation analysis were performed. Patients with upper secondary and compulsory education stayed longer in hospital compared to those with tertiary education (β 0.24 days, 95% CI 0.14–0.33; β 0.37, 95% CI 0.27–0.47, respectively) when taking into account demographic factors, main diagnosis and clustering on patient and hospital level. However, these effects were almost fully mediated by burden of comorbidity. The effect of living alone on length of stay (β 0.60 days, 95% CI 0.50–0.70) was partially mediated by both burden of comorbidities (33%) and discharge destination (30.4%). (Semi-) private insurance was associated with prolonged stays, but an inverse effect was observed for colon and breast cancer. Allophone patients had also prolonged hospital stays (β 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.55). Hospital stays could be a window of opportunity to discern patients who need additional time and support to better cope with everyday life after discharge, reducing the risks of future hospital stays. However, inpatient care in Switzerland seems to take into account rather obvious individual needs due to lack of immediate support at home, but not necessarily more hidden needs of patients with low health literacy and less resources to assert their interests within the health system.
Lebensqualität versus Lebensschutz bei Menschen mit Beeinträchtigungen während der Covid-19-Pandemie. Studie im Auftrag des Bundesamts für Gesundheit
2023, Büschi, Eva, Bachmann, Nicole, Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy, Hess, Nadja, Hug, Sonja, Knobel Furrer, Christina, Lichtenauer, Annette, Moramana, Nadja
Social disparities in unplanned 30-day readmission rates after hospital discharge in patients with chronic health conditions: A retrospective cohort study using patient level hospital administrative data linked to the population census in Switzerland
2022-09-22, Zumbrunn, Andrea, Bachmann, Nicole, Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy, Joerg, Reto
Unplanned readmissions shortly after discharge from hospital are common in chronic diseases. The risk of readmission has been shown to be related both to hospital care, e.g., medical complications, and to patients’ resources and abilities to manage the chronic disease at home and to make appropriate use of outpatient medical care. Despite a growing body of evidence on social determinants of health and health behaviour, little is known about the impact of social and contextual factors on readmission rates. The objective of this study was to analyse possible effects of educational, financial and social resources of patients with different chronic health conditions on unplanned 30 day-readmission risks. The study made use of nationwide inpatient hospital data that was linked with Swiss census data. The sample included n = 62,109 patients aged 25 and older, hospitalized between 2012 and 2016 for one of 12 selected chronic conditions. Multivariate logistic regressions analysis was performed. Our results point to a significant association between social factors and readmission rates for patients with chronic conditions. Patients with upper secondary education (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.44) and compulsory education (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.31, 1.74) had higher readmission rates than those with tertiary education when taking into account demographic, social and health status factors. Having private or semi-private hospital insurance was associated with a lower risk for 30-day readmission compared to patients with mandatory insurance (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.90). We did not find a general effect of social resources, measured by living with others in a household, on readmission rates. The risk of readmission for patients with chronic conditions was also strongly predicted by type of chronic condition and by factors related to health status, such as previous hospitalizations before the index hospitalization (+77%), number of comorbidities (+15% higher probability per additional comorbidity) as well as particularly long hospitalizations (+64%). Stratified analysis by type of chronic condition revealed differential effects of social factors on readmissions risks. Compulsory education was most strongly associated with higher odds for readmission among patients with lung cancer (+142%), congestive heart failure (+63%) and back problems (+53%). We assume that low socioeconomic status among patients with chronic conditions increases the risk of unplanned 30-day readmission after hospitalisation due to factors related to their social situation (e.g., low health literacy, material deprivation, high social burden), which may negatively affect cooperation with care providers and adherence to recommended therapies as well as hamper active participation in the medical process and the development of a shared understanding of the disease and its cure. Higher levels of comorbidity in socially disadvantaged patients can also make appropriate self-management and use of outpatient care more difficult. Our findings suggest a need for increased preventive measures for disadvantaged populations groups to promote early detection of diseases and to remove financial or knowledge-based barriers to medical care. Socially disadvantaged patients should also be strengthened more in their individual and social resources for coping with illness.