IRF: Institutional Repository FHNW

Willkommen auf der Publikations- und Forschungsdatenbank der Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz FHNW.

Das IRF ist das digitale Repositorium der FHNW. Es enthält Publikationen, studentische Arbeiten und Projekte.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie im IRF-Handbuch.

 

Neuzugänge

Publikation
Determinants of perceived air pollution annoyance and association between annoyance scores and air pollution (PM2.5, NO2) concentrations in the European EXPOLIS study
(Elsevier, 2002) Rotko, Tuulia; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino; Carrer, Paolo; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Jantunen, Matti [in: Atmospheric Environment]
Apart from its traditionally considered objective impacts on health, air pollution can also have perceived effects, such as annoyance. The psychological effects of air pollution may often be more important to well-being than the biophysical effects. Health effects of perceived annoyance from air pollution are so far unknown. More knowledge of air pollution annoyance levels, determinants and also associations with different air pollution components is needed. In the European air pollution exposure study, EXPOLIS, the air pollution annoyance as perceived at home, workplace and in traffic were surveyed among other study objectives. Overall 1736 randomly drawn 25–55-yr-old subjects participated in six cities (Athens, Basel, Milan, Oxford, Prague and Helsinki). Levels and predictors of individual perceived annoyances from air pollution were assessed. Instead of the usual air pollution concentrations at fixed monitoring sites, this paper compares the measured microenvironment concentrations and personal exposures of PM2.5 and NO2 to the perceived annoyance levels. A considerable proportion of the adults surveyed was annoyed by air pollution. Female gender, self-reported respiratory symptoms, downtown living and self-reported sensitivity to air pollution were directly associated with high air pollution annoyance score while in traffic, but smoking status, age or education level were not significantly associated. Population level annoyance averages correlated with the city average exposure levels of PM2.5 and NO2. A high correlation was observed between the personal 48-h PM2.5 exposure and perceived annoyance at home as well as between the mean annoyance at work and both the average work indoor PM2.5 and the personal work time PM2.5 exposure. With the other significant determinants (gender, city code, home location) and home outdoor levels the model explained 14% (PM2.5) and 19% (NO2) of the variation in perceived air pollution annoyance in traffic. Compared to Helsinki, in Basel and Prague the adult participants were more annoyed by air pollution while in traffic even after taking the current home outdoor PM2.5 and NO2 levels into account.
01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
Publikation
Evaluation of VOC measurements in the EXPOLIS study
(Royal Society of Chemistry, 2001) Jurvelin, Jouni; Edwards, Rufus; Saarela, Kristina; Laine­-Ylijoki, Jutta; De Bortoli, Maurizio; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Schläpfer, Kurt; Georgoulis, Lambros; Tischerova, Eva; Hänninen, Otto; Jantunen, Matti [in: Journal of Environmental Monitoring]
Personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations of 30 target VOCs were measured for 401 participants living in five European cities as a part of the EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distributions within Adult Urban Populations in Europe) study. Measurements in Basel used an active charcoal (Carbotech) adsorbent as opposed to the Tenax TA used in the other study centres. In addition, within each centre, personal and microenvironment VOC sampling required different sampling pumps and, because of different sampling durations, different sampling flow rates. Thus, careful testing of the sampling and analysis procedures was required to ensure accuracy and comparability of collected data. Monitor comparison tests using Tenax TA showed a mean VOC concentration ratio of 0.95 between the personal and microenvironment monitors. The LODs for the target VOCs using Tenax TA ranged from 0.7 to 5.2 µg m−3. The LODs for the 14 target compounds quantifiable using Carbotech ranged from 0.9 to 3.2 µg m−3. Tenax TA field blanks showed no remarkable contamination with the target VOCs, except benzaldehyde, a known artefact with this adsorbent. Thus, the diffusion barrier system used prevented contamination of Tenax TA samples by passive diffusion during non-sampling periods. Duplicate and parallel evaluations of the Tenax TA and Carbotech showed an average difference of <17% in VOC concentrations within the sampling methods, but a systematic difference between the methods (Tenax TA ∶ Carbotech concentration ratio = 1.18–2.36). These field evaluations and quality assurance tests showed that interpretation and comparison of the results in any VOC monitoring exercise should be done on a compound by compound basis. It is also apparent that carefully planned and realised QA and QC (QA/QC) procedures are needed in multi-centre studies, where a common sampling method and laboratory analysis technique are not used, to strengthen and simplify the interpretation of observed VOC levels between participating centres.
01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
Publikation
Exposure chain of urban air PM2.5—associations between ambient fixed site, residential outdoor, indoor, workplace and personal exposures in four European cities in the EXPOLIS-study
(Elsevier, 2002) Kousa, Anu; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Koistinen, Kimmo; Künzli, Nino; Jantunen, Matti [in: Atmospheric Environment]
In the EXPOLIS study personal exposures and microenvironment levels of air pollutants from 50–201 urban adult (25–55 yr) participants were measured in six European cities during 1 yr from autumn 1996 to winter 1997–98. This paper presents the associations between the personal PM2.5 exposures, microenvironment (residential indoor, residential outdoor and workplace indoor) and ambient fixed site concentrations measured in Helsinki (Finland), Basel (Switzerland), Prague (Czech Republic) and Athens (Greece). Considering the whole chain from ambient fixed site to residential outdoor, residential indoor and personal leisure time (non-working hours) exposure, the correlations were highest between personal leisure time exposures and residential indoor concentrations (non-environmental tobacco smoke (ETS): Pearson r=0.72−0.92, ETS included: r=0.82−0.86) except in Athens, where the correlation between residential indoor and outdoor air was highest (non-ETS: r=0.82, ETS included: r=0.68)). Unfortunately, ambient fixed site PM2.5 concentrations were measured continuously only in Helsinki. Ambient fixed site PM2.5 concentrations correlated quite well with residential outdoor concentrations (r=0.90), and also with residential indoor (non-ETS) concentrations (r=0.80), but concentrations measured at ambient fixed site monitors were poor predictors of personal exposures to PM2.5. They were particularly poor predictors of personal workday exposures (non-ETS: r=0.34, ETS included: r=0.25), but considerably better for personal leisure time exposures (non-ETS: r=0.69, ETS included: r=0.54). According to log-linear regression models combined from all centres of non-ETS-exposed participants, residential indoor concentrations explained 76% of personal leisure time PM2.5 exposure variation and workplace indoor concentrations explained 66% of the workday exposure variation.
01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
Publikation
Single pollutant versus surrogate measure approaches: Do single pollutant risk assessments underestimate the impact of air pollution on lung cancer risk?
(Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2003) Röösli, Martin; Künzli, Nino; Schindler, Christian; Theis, Gaston; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Mathys, Patrick; Camenzind, Markus; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte [in: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine]
Cancer risk as a result of air pollution may be quantified by different approaches. We compared the sum of unit risk based effects of single pollutants with an epidemiology-based method by using PM10 as a surrogate of the total air pollution. The excess rate for lung cancer cases attributable to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in average PM10 exposure was estimated from available cohort studies. Applying the epidemiology-based risk method to the air pollution situation in the Basel area (Switzerland) resulted in 13.3 (95% CI = 6.9–19.8) excess lung cancer cases per 100,000 person years. This estimate was considerably higher than the unit risk-based estimate yielding 1.1 (range, 0.45–2.8) cancer cases per 100,000 person years. We discuss these discrepancies in light of inherent differences between approaches in toxicology and epidemiology.
01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
Publikation
Zooming in: The role of nonverbal behavior in sensing the quality of collaborative group engagement
(Springer, 16.05.2024) Paneth, Lisa; Jeitziner, Loris Tizian; Rack, Oliver; Opwis, Klaus; Zahn, Carmen [in: International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning]
01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift