Auflistung Institut für Ecopreneurship nach Schlagwort "610 - Medizin und Gesundheit"
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- PublikationAntimony retention and release from drained and waterlogged shooting range soil under field conditions(Elsevier, 09/2015) Hockmann, Kerstin; Tandy, Susan; Lenz, Markus; Reiser, Rene; Conesa, Hector; Keller, Martin; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer [in: Chemosphere]Many soils polluted by antimony (Sb) are subject to fluctuating waterlogging conditions; yet, little is known about how these affect the mobility of this toxic element under field conditions. Here, we compared Sb leaching from a calcareous shooting range soil under drained and waterlogged conditions using four large outdoor lysimeters. After monitoring the leachate samples taken at bi-weekly intervals for >1.5 years under drained conditions, two of the lysimeters were subjected to waterlogging with a water table fluctuating according to natural rainfall water infiltration. Antimony leachate concentrations under drained conditions showed a strong seasonal fluctuation between 110 μg L−1 in summer and <40 μg L−1 in winter, which closely correlated with fluctuations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. With the development of anaerobic conditions upon waterlogging, Sb in leachate decreased to 2–5 μg L−1 Sb and remained stable at this level. Antimony speciation measurements in soil solution indicated that this decrease in Sb(V) concentrations was attributable to the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) and the stronger sorption affinity of the latter to iron (Fe) (hydr)oxide phases. Our results demonstrate the importance of considering seasonal and waterlogging effects in the assessment of the risks from Sb-contaminated sites.01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
- PublikationBiotechnologies for Critical Raw Material Recovery from Primary and Secondary Sources: R&D Priorities and Future Perspectives(Elsevier, 25.01.2015) Hennebel, Tom; Boon, Nico; Maes, Synthia; Lenz, Markus [in: New Biotechnology]Europe is confronted with an increasing supply risk of critical raw materials. These can be defined as materials of which the risks of supply shortage and their impacts on the economy are higher compared to most of other raw materials. Within the framework of the EU Innovation Partnership on raw materials Initiative, a list of 14 critical materials was defined, including some bulk metals, industrial minerals, the platinum group metals and rare earth elements. To tackle the supply risk challenge, innovation is required with respect to sustainable primary mining, substitution of critical metals, and urban mining. In these three categories, biometallurgy can play a crucial role. Indeed, microbe-metal interactions have been successfully applied on full scale to win materials from primary sources, but are not sufficiently explored for metal recovery or recycling. On the one hand, this article gives an overview of the microbial strategies that are currently applied on full scale for biomining; on the other hand it identifies technologies, currently developed in the laboratory, which have a perspective for large scale metal recovery and the needs and challenges on which bio-metallurgical research should focus to achieve this ambitious goal.01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
- PublikationDetection of SARS-CoV-2 in raw and treated wastewater in Germany – Suitability for COVID-19 surveillance and potential transmission risks(Elsevier, 10.01.2021) Westhaus, Sandra; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Schiwy, Sabrina; Linnemann, Volker; Brinkmann, Markus; Widera, Marek; Greve, Carola; Janke, Axel; Hollert, Henner; Wintgens, Thomas; Ciesek, Sandra [in: Science of the Total Environment]Wastewater-based monitoring of the spread of the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, also referred to as wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), has been suggested as a tool to support epidemiology. An extensive sampling campaign, including nine municipal wastewater treatment plants, has been conducted in different cities of the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) on the same day in April 2020, close to the first peak of the corona crisis. Samples were processed and analysed for a set of SARS-CoV-2-specific genes, as well as pan-genotypic gene sequences also covering other coronavirus types, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Additionally, a comprehensive set of chemical reference parameters and bioindicators was analysed to characterize the wastewater quality and composition. Results of the RT-qPCR based gene analysis indicate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 genetic traces in different raw wastewaters. Furthermore, selected samples have been sequenced using Sanger technology to confirm the specificity of the RT-qPCR and the origin of the coronavirus. A comparison of the particle-bound and the dissolved portion of SARS-CoV-2 virus genes shows that quantifications must not neglect the solid-phase reservoir. The infectivity of the raw wastewater has also been assessed by viral outgrowth assay with a potential SARS-CoV-2 host cell line in vitro, which were not infected when exposed to the samples. This first evidence suggests that wastewater might be no major route for transmission to humans. Our findings draw attention to the need for further methodological and molecular assay validation for enveloped viruses in wastewater.01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift