Fent, Karl

Fent, Karl


Gerade angezeigt 1 - 2 von 2
  • Publikation
    Endocrine disruption and chronic effects of plant protection products in bees: Can we better protect our pollinators?
    (Elsevier, 09/2018) Christen, Verena; Kunz, Petra Y.; Fent, Karl [in: Environmental Pollution]
    Exposure to plant protection products (PPPs) is one of the causes for the population decline of pollinators. In addition to direct exposure, pollinators are exposed to PPPs by pollen, nectar and honey that often contain residues of multiple PPPs. While in legislation PPPs are regarded mainly for their acute toxicity in bees, other effects such as neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, behavioural changes, stress responses and chronic effects that may harm different physiologically and ecologically relevant traits are much less or not regarded. Despite the fact that endocrine disruption by PPPs is among key effects weakening survival and thriving of populations, pollinators have been poorly investigated in this regard. Here we summarize known endocrine disruptive effects of PPPs in bees and compare them to other chronic effects. Endocrine disruption in honey bees comprise negative effects on reproductive success of queens and drones and behavioural transition of nurse bees to foragers. Among identified PPPs are insecticides, including neonicotinoids, fipronil, chlorantraniliprole and azadirachtin. So far, there exists no OECD guideline to investigate possible endocrine effects of PPPs. Admittedly, investigation of effects on reproduction success of queens and drones is rarely possible under laboratory conditions. But the behavioural transition of nurse bees to foragers could be a possible endpoint to analyse endocrine effects of PPPs under laboratory conditions. We identified some genes, including vitellogenin, which regulate this transition and which may be used as biomarkers for endocrine disruptive PPPs. We plea for a better implementation of the adverse outcome pathway concept into bee's research and propose a procedure for extending and complementing current assessments, including OECD guidelines, with additional physiological and molecular endpoints. Consequently, assessing potential endocrine disruption in pollinators should receive much more relevance.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Developmental neurotoxicity of different pesticides in PC-12 cells in vitro
    (Elsevier, 2017) Christen, Verena; Fent, Karl; Rusconi, Manuel; Crettaz, Pierre [in: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology]
    The detection of developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of chemicals has high relevance for protection of human health. However, DNT of many pesticides is only little known. Furthermore, validated in vitro systems for assessment of DNT are not well established. Here we employed the rat phaeochromocytoma cell line PC-12 to evaluate DNT of 18 frequently used pesticides of different classes, including neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, organophosphates, organochlorines, as well as quaternary ammonium compounds, the organic compound used in pesticides, piperonyl butoxide, as well as the insect repellent diethyltoluamide (DEET). We determined the outgrowth of neurites in PC-12 cells co-treated with nerve growth factor and different concentrations of biocides for 5 days. Furthermore, we determined transcriptional alterations of selected genes that may be associated with DNT, such as camk2α and camk2β, gap-43, neurofilament-h, tubulin-α and tubulin-β. Strong and dose- dependent inhibition of neurite outgrowth was induced by azamethiphos and chlorpyrifos, and dieldrin and heptachlor, which was correlated with up-regulation of gap-43. No or only weak effects on neurite outgrowth and transcriptional alterations occurred for neonicotinoids acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, the pyrethroids λ-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin, the biocidal disinfectants C12-C14-alkyl(ethylbenzyl)dimethylammonium (BAC), benzalkonium chloride and barquat (dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride), and piperonyl butoxide and DEET. Our study confirms potential developmental neurotoxicity of some pesticides and provides first evidence that azamethiphos has the potential to act as a developmental neurotoxic compound. We also demonstrate that inhibition of neurite outgrowth and transcriptional alterations of gap-43 expression correlate, which suggests the employment of gap-43 expression as a biomarker for detection and initial evaluation of potential DNT of chemicals.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift