Krieg, Raphael

Krieg, Raphael


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  • Publikation
    Large‐scale eDNA monitoring of multiple aquatic pathogens as a tool to provide risk maps for wildlife diseases
    (Wiley, 11.05.2023) Sieber, Natalie; King, Alex; Krieg, Raphael; Zenker, Armin; Vorburger, Christoph; Hartikainen, Hanna [in: Environmental DNA]
    Multiple parasites and pathogens cause disease in aquatic wildlife and in aquaculture species, generating a need for monitoring and management. Conventional disease monitoring methods involve laborious, costly, and invasive capture and examination of host species, and require specialized expertise for every host and pathogen of interest. Environmental DNA could provide simultaneous occurrence data for multiple pathogens across different host taxa, valuable for using parasite diversity as, for example, a bioindicator of ecosystem disturbance. Here, we tested the potential for simultaneous detection of four wildlife pathogens in water samples from 280, mainly riverine, sites across Switzerland. We targeted the crayfish pathogen, the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and the fish pathogens Saprolegnia parasitica and Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. The eDNA detection showed a widespread distribution of A. astaciS. parasitica T. bryosalmonae A. astaci and T. bryosalmonae were not detected in some alpine river catchments. B. dendrobatidis was detected only rarely, which was expected since the sampling did not target amphibian breeding sites. Co‐detection rates were higher in rivers than in lakes, likely reflecting the habitat preferences and distributions of the host species. We discuss the advantages and limitations of eDNA‐based pathogen monitoring and list a set of recommendations for managers. Our study illustrates how eDNA‐based techniques can monitor several pathogen species concurrently, thus facilitating more comprehensive disease monitoring schemes. Combined with metabarcoding approaches in the future, eDNA‐based sampling and detection can facilitate the incorporation of parasite and pathogen occurrence and diversity as an indicator for aquatic ecosystem health, and for revealing the hidden biodiversity and structure of parasite communities.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Parasite DNA detection in water samples enhances crayfish plague monitoring in asymptomatic invasive populations
    (Springer, 01.11.2021) Sieber, Natalie; Hartikainen, Hanna; Krieg, Raphael; Zenker, Armin; Vorburger, Christoph [in: Biological Invasions]
    Invasive species can facilitate the spread of pathogens by first providing asymptomatic host reservoirs, and then driving disease outbreaks in native populations through pathogen spillover. An example of this are invasive crayfish species in Europe (Faxonius limosus, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii), which carry the deadly plague agent (Aphanomyces astaci). Effective disease management requires comprehensive monitoring, however, pathogen detection in carrier populations with low pathogen prevalence and intensities is challenging. We simultaneously collected and analysed crayfish tissue samples of invasive crayfish populations and water samples to compare A. astaci detection in different sample types using quantitative PCR. Combined, the two sampling methods revealed A. astaci presence with DNA concentrations above limit of detection (LOD; the lowest concentration which can be detected with reasonable certainty) in 13 of 23 invasive crayfish populations. In four additional sites, A. astaci DNA concentrations below LOD were found in water. In four populations only were A. astaci concentrations above LOD detected in both sample types and in three populations in concentrations above LOD in tissue but below LOD in water. The likely reason for these discrepancies is the low A. astaci prevalence and concentration in resistant invasive crayfish, which limit detection reliability. Consistency may be improved by timing surveys with seasonal periods of high A. astaci abundance and by increasing water sampling effort. Considering the ease of collecting eDNA samples, compared to crayfish tissue sampling, eDNA methods would facilitate frequent and comprehensive surveys. However, remaining uncertainties in eDNA-based detection reveal the relevance of combining monitoring tools to improve detection of invasive pathogens and their management.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift