Net zero enrgy balance for high-rise buildings
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Multifamily dwellings and office buildings with a square and a stretched footprint with up to 40 floors are considered for a net zero energy balance. A wide range of parameters is investigated in regard to their impact on the zero energy balance. The main results gained by the simulation based research described above can be summarized as follows: Only the HVAC zero balance can be achieved for up to 40 floors for all variants studied but one. The five main parameters in regard to achieving a HVAC or TE zero energy balance are, efficient electric devices and lighting, low heat demand, the type of heating system, the actually available area for PV and the overall efficiency of the PV-System. The results show that a net zero energy balance for HVAC only or for total energy can be achieved for large multifamily dwellings and office buildings of up to 40 floors. To this end, however, apart from a well-insulated building envelope, electronic devices, lighting and PV systems with a very high efficiency are necessary. With further improvements in the efficiency of devices, lighting and PV-systems, reaching the "zero" will become easier.