Breitenmoser, Lena

Breitenmoser, Lena


Gerade angezeigt 1 - 3 von 3
  • Publikation
    Occupational health risk assessment for wastewater treatment and reuse in Kanpur, India
    (MDPI, 07.06.2023) Babalola, Folake Monsurat; Breitenmoser, Lena; Furlong, Claire; Campling, Paul; Hooijmans, Christine Maria [in: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health]
    The treatment and reuse of wastewater for irrigation can lead to occupational health risks for sewage treatment plant (STP) workers and farmers. Sanitation Safety Planning (SSP) is an approach which can be used to measure and mitigate these risks. This paper explores what impact a novel secondary treatment process, consisting of an integrated permeate channel (IPC) membrane combined with a constructed wetland plus, has on the occupational health risks compared with the existing activated sludge wastewater treatment process and reuse system in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. A mixed methodology was used, which included key informant interviews, structured observations, and E. coli analysis. This data was used to undertake semi-quantitative risk assessments following the SSP approach. The novel secondary treatment increased the number of health risks which the STP workers were exposed to, but the severity of the risks was lower. This was due to the differences in treatment processes and infrastructures. The number of health risks for the farmers decreased both in number and severity. For their children, the severity of the health impacts decreased. These changes were due to the increase in the microbiological quality of the irrigation water. This study highlights the potential of using a semi-quantitative risk assessment to assess the occupational health impacts of using novel treatment technologies.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Perceived drivers and barriers in the governance of wastewater treatment and reuse in India. Insights from a two-round Delphi study
    (Elsevier, 07/2022) Breitenmoser, Lena; Cuadrado Quesada, Gabriela; N, Anshuman; Bassi, Nitin; Dkhar, Nathaniel Bhakupar; Phukan, Mayuri; Kumar, Saurabh; Naga Babu, Andraju; Kierstein, Anjin; Campling, Paul; Hooijmans, Christine Maria [in: Resources, Conservation and Recycling]
    Abstract Wastewater treatment and reuse practices are limited in India despite the known benefits of preventing water resources pollution and contributing to sustainable production and consumption systems. We identify the perceived key drivers and barriers to wastewater treatment and reuse governance in a two-round Delphi study, including literature and case study analyses and consultation with 75 panelists. Panelists indicated that the most significant driver for wastewater treatment and water reuse is persistent water scarcity that necessitates diversification to alternative water supplies. In contrast, the most significant barriers are the lack of enforcement of pollution monitoring and control, the lack of an umbrella directive for integrated water resources management, and insufficient collaboration between responsible governmental organizations, central and state water authorities. Given the absence of central guidelines, only a few Indian states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat or Punjab have adopted effective governance structures. These states showcase that defined reuse standards can create successful wastewater treatment and reuse practices but require target-based regulations which are enforced and regularly monitored and financing mechanisms for their long-term operation. The new effluent discharge standards by the National Green Tribunal, the government support programmes, and increasing water scarcity in many parts of India will supposedly drive innovative wastewater treatment and reuse structures. Panelists agreed that efforts are needed to develop technology guiding frameworks following the fit-for-purpose principle and that strengthening institutional and monitoring capacity is crucial to increase confidence in the quality of recovered water resources, create demand, and ultimately safeguard human health and the environment.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Anaerobic digestion of biowaste in Indian municipalities. Effects on energy, fertilizers, water and the local environment
    (Elsevier, 07/2021) Gross, Thomas; Breitenmoser, Lena; Hugi, Christoph; Wintgens, Thomas [in: Resources, Conservation and Recycling]
    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of biowaste seems promising to provide renewable energy (biogas) and organic fertilizers (digestate) and mitigate environmental pollution in India. Intersectoral analyses of biowaste management in municipalities are needed to reveal benefits and trade-offs of AD at the implementation-level. Therefore, we applied material flow analyses (MFAs) to quantify effects of potential AD treatment of biowaste on energy and fertilizer supply, water consumption and environmental pollution in two villages, two towns and two cities in Maharashtra. Results show that in villages AD of available manure and crop residues can cover over half of the energy consumption for cooking (EC) and reduce firewood dependency. In towns and cities, AD of municipal biowaste is more relevant for organic fertilizer supply and pollution control because digestate can provide up to several times the nutrient requirements for crop production, but can harm ecosystems when discharged to the environment. Hence, in addition to energy from municipal biowaste - which can supply 4-6% of EC - digestate valorisation seems vital but requires appropriate post-treatment, quality control and trust building with farmers. To minimize trade-offs, water-saving options should be considered because 2-20% of current groundwater abstraction in municipalities is required to treat all available biowaste with 'wet' AD systems compared to <3% with 'dry' AD systems. We conclude that biowaste management with AD requires contextualized solutions in the setting of energy, fertilizers and water at the implementation-level to conceive valorization strategies for all AD products, reduce environmental pollution and minimize trade-offs with water resources.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift