THE ROLE OF BUSINESS IN RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT (R2P) IN RELATION TO THE GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS AND HUMAN RIGHTS AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR)
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This paper attempts to explore whether there is a role for business in effectively contributing to the implementation of Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine through the links between guiding principles of business and human rights which endorses Ruggie’s framework of respect, protect and remedy and the UN global compact within the umbrella term of corporate social responsibility (CSR). In response to the failures of preventing mass atrocities in Rwanda, Bosnia and Kosovo, despite having many conventions and charter on human rights, R2P framework was originally devised by the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty in 2001 and later adapted by the UN (Alleblas, 2015). R2P was also pointed out as a necessity in the case of Syria crisis (Williams et al. 2012). It is a challenging doctrine with regard to intervention in the sovereignty of the state on mass atrocities. Although R2P acknowledges that the primary responsibility lies with the state, it also calls for other non-state actors of international community, including private businesses, to play a role in preventing mass atrocities within the state. There are practical examples to illustrate how private business could contribute to preventing mass atrocities such as Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) (Alleblas, 2015). However, there is no clear guidance on how and why should private business actors contribute to R2P obligations. There are many research articles on conflict prevention and business; moreover, there is some correlation between conflict prevention and prevention of mass atrocities. However, further research is required on the importance of business and R2P in relation to the guiding principles on business and human rights framework which was recognized by the UN Human Rights Council in 2011 and the UN Global Compact (UNGC).