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  • Publikation
    Responses of reconstituted human bronchial epithelia from normal and health-compromised donors to non-volatile particulate matter emissions from an aircraft turbofan engine
    (Elsevier, 15.08.2022) Delaval, Mathilde N.; Jonsdottir, Hulda R.; Leni, Zaira; Keller, Alejandro; Brem, Benjamin T.; Siegerist, Frithjof; Schönenberger, David; Durdina, Lukas; Elser, Miriam; Salathe, Matthias; Baumlin, Nathalie; Lobo, Prem; Burtscher, Heinz; Liati, Anthi; Geiser, Marianne [in: Environmental Pollution]
    Health effects of particulate matter (PM) from aircraft engines have not been adequately studied since controlled laboratory studies reflecting realistic conditions regarding aerosols, target tissue, particle exposure and deposited particle dose are logistically challenging. Due to the important contributions of aircraft engine emissions to air pollution, we employed a unique experimental setup to deposit exhaust particles directly from an aircraft engine onto reconstituted human bronchial epithelia (HBE) at air-liquid interface under conditions similar to in vivo airways to mimic realistic human exposure. The toxicity of non-volatile PM (nvPM) from a CFM56-7B26 aircraft engine was evaluated under realistic engine conditions by sampling and exposing HBE derived from donors of normal and compromised health status to exhaust for 1 h followed by biomarker analysis 24 h post exposure. Particle deposition varied depending on the engine thrust levels with 85% thrust producing the highest nvPM mass and number emissions with estimated surface deposition of 3.17 × 109 particles cm−2 or 337.1 ng cm−2. Transient increase in cytotoxicity was observed after exposure to nvPM in epithelia derived from a normal donor as well as a decrease in the secretion of interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. Non-replicated multiple exposures of epithelia derived from a normal donor to nvPM primarily led to a pro-inflammatory response, while both cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induction remained unaffected. This raises concerns for the long-term implications of aircraft nvPM for human pulmonary health, especially in occupational settings.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Coated soot particles with tunable, well-controlled properties generated in the laboratory with a miniCAST BC and a micro smog chamber
    (Elsevier, 28.05.2021) Ess, Michaela N.; Bertò, Michele; Keller, Alejandro; Gysel-Beer, Martin; Vasilatou, Konstantina [in: Journal of Aerosol Science]
    A Micro Smog Chamber (MSC) was coupled for the first time with a miniCAST 5201 Type BC combustion generator with the aim to produce a series of stable and reproducible model aerosols simulating the physical properties of combustion particles present in ambient air. With this setup it was possible to generate particles ranging from “fresh” soot (single scattering albedo SSA≤0.05, absorption Ångström exponent AAE close to 1, high EC/TC mass fraction (approximately 90%) and mobility diameter typically <100 nm) to “aged” soot with different amounts of organic coating. The “aged” soot particles could grow up to 200 nm and exhibited high SSA (up to 0.7 at λ = 870 nm), an increased AAE (up to 1.7) and low EC/TC mass fraction (down to <10%). The ageing was achieved by coating the soot particles with increasing amounts of secondary organic matter (SOM) formed by the photo-oxidation of α-pinene or mesitylene in the MSC. Thereby, the SSA and AAE increased with coating thickness, while the EC/TC mass fraction decreased. Over the experimental period of 2 h, the generation of the “aged” soot aerosols was stable with a standard deviation in particle size and number concentration of <1% and <6%, respectively. The day-to-day reproducibility was also satisfactory: with α-pinene as SOM precursor the variability (standard deviation) in particle size was <2% and in the AAE and SSA < 6%. Particle number concentrations up to 106 cm−3 and mass concentrations up to 15 mg/m3 (depending on particle size and SOM amount) could be generated, much higher than what has been reported with other oxidation flow reactors. The generated carbonaceous aerosols could find useful applications in the field of aerosol instrument calibration, particularly in the standardization of filter-based absorption photometers under controlled conditions.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    Non-volatile particle emissions from aircraft turbine engines at ground-idle induce oxidative stress in bronchial cells
    (Nature, 05.03.2019) Jonsdottir, Hulda R.; Delaval, Mathilde; Leni, Zaira; Keller, Alejandro; Brem, Benjamin T.; Siegerist, Frithjof; Schönenberger, David; Durdina, Lukas; Elser, Miriam; Burtscher, Heinz; Liati, Anthi; Geiser, Marianne [in: Communications Biology]
    Aircraft emissions contribute to local and global air pollution. Health effects of particulate matter (PM) from aircraft engines are largely unknown, since controlled cell exposures at relevant conditions are challenging. We examined the toxicity of non-volatile PM (nvPM) emissions from a CFM56-7B26 turbofan, the world’s most used aircraft turbine using an unprecedented exposure setup. We combined direct turbine-exhaust sampling under realistic engine operating conditions and the Nano-Aerosol Chamber for In vitro Toxicity to deposit particles onto air–liquid-interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) at physiological conditions. We evaluated acute cellular responses after 1-h exposures to diluted exhaust from conventional or alternative fuel combustion. We show that single, short-term exposures to nvPM impair bronchial epithelial cells, and PM from conventional fuel at ground-idle conditions is the most hazardous. Electron microscopy of soot reveals varying reactivity matching the observed cellular responses. Stronger responses at lower mass concentrations suggest that additional metrics are necessary to evaluate health risks of this increasingly important emission source.
    01A - Beitrag in wissenschaftlicher Zeitschrift
  • Publikation
    The organic coating unit, an all-in-one system for reproducible generation of secondary organic aerosol
    (22.06.2022) Keller, Alejandro; Specht, Patrick; Steigmeier, Peter; Kalbermatter, Daniel; Hammer, Tobias; Vasilatou, Konstantina; Wolfer, Kate; Resch, Julian; Kalberer, Markus
    06 - Präsentation
  • Publikation
    The organic coating unit, an all-in-one system for reproducible generation of secondary organic aerosol
    (06.09.2022) Keller, Alejandro; Kalbermatter, Daniel; Specht, Patrick; Steigmeier, Peter; Wolfer, Katherin; Resch, Julian; Kalberer, Markus; Hammer, Tobias; Vasilatou, Konstantina
    06 - Präsentation